Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery in India at Mumbai and Delhi at Low cost.

Published: 16th January 2012
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Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery and Robotic Heart Surgery in India

What is minimally invasive heart surgery ?
Benefits of Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery
Types of minimally invasive cardiovascular surgeries
Robotic-assisted heart surgery

What is Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery ?

Minimally invasive heart surgery in India is performed through a small incision, often using specialized surgical instruments. The incision is about 2 to 4 inches instead of the 6- to 8-inch incision required for traditional surgery. Keyhole approaches or port-access techniques are also available for some types of surgery.

Benefits of Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery

The benefits of minimally invasive heart surgery include : -<

A smaller incision
A smaller scar

Other possible benefits of minimally invasive heart surgery may include : -

Reduced risk of infection
Less bleeding with minimally invasive heart surgery
Less pain and trauma
Decreased length of stay in hospital after the procedure: the average stay is 3 to 5 days after minimally invasive surgery, while the average stay after traditional heart surgery is 5 days
Decreased recovery time: the average recovery time after minimally invasive heart surgery is 2 to 4 weeks, while the average recovery time after traditional heart surgery is 6 to 8 weeks

Types of minimally invasive cardiovascular surgeries

Types of minimally invasive cardiovascular surgeries include : -

Valve surgery
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
Epicardial lead placement: placement of leads for biventricular pacemakers (cardiac resynchronization therapy)
Atrial fibrillation

Heart Valve surgeries, including valve repairs and valve replacements, are the most common minimally invasive heart surgery procedures. Minimally invasive valve surgeries account for 87 percent of the minimally invasive cardiac surgeries performed at The Cleveland Clinic. A small, 3- to 4-inch incision is made down the center of the sternum (breastbone), whereas the incision made during traditional valve surgery is about 6 to 8 inches long.

Traditional heart surgery incision,
The incision is larger (about 6 - 8 inches),
made down the sternum, through bone and muscle.

Minimally invasive- upper partial sternotomy,
The small incision (about 3 - 4 inches) is made down the center of the breastbon.e

Minimally invasive -
lower partial sternotomy.

Minimally invasive - right mini thoracotomy
A small incision (about 2 - 3 inches) is made in between the ribs

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass graft (MID CABG) surgery is an option for some patients who require a left internal mammary artery bypass graft to the left anterior descending artery. A small, 2-3 inch incision is made in the chest wall between the ribs, whereas the incision made during traditional CABG surgery is about 6 to 8 inches long and is made down the center of the sternum (breastbone).

Saphenous (leg) vein harvest may also be performed using small incisions. Several techniques for minimally invasive bypass surgery are being explored, including surgeries performed on a beating or non beating heart.

Off-pump or beating heart bypass surgery allows surgeons to perform surgery on the heart while it is still beating. A medication may be given to slow the heart during surgery, but the heart keeps beating during the procedure. This type of surgery may be an option for patients with single-vessel disease (such as disease of the left anterior descending artery or right coronary artery).

Traditionally, CABG surgery is performed with the assistance of cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung machine). The heart-lung machine allows the hearts beating to be stopped, so the surgeon can operate on a surface which is blood-free and still. The heart-lung machine maintains life despite the lack of a heartbeat, removing carbon dioxide from the blood and replacing it with oxygen before pumping it around the body.

During off-pump or beating heart surgery, the heart-lung machine is not used. The surgeon uses advanced operating equipment to stabilize (hold) portions of the heart and bypass the blocked artery in a highly controlled operative environment. Meanwhile, the rest of the heart keeps pumping and circulating blood to the body.

Keyhole Approaches : -

For some surgical procedures, an endoscopic or "keyhole" approach may be performed. This approach may also be referred to as port access surgery or video-assisted surgery.

The port access surgery technique allows surgeons to use one to four small (5- 10 mm) incisions or "ports" in the chest wall between the ribs. An endoscope or thoracoscope (thin video instrument that has a small camera at the tip) and surgical instruments are placed through the incisions. The scope transmits a picture of the internal organs on a video monitor so the surgeon can get a closer view of the surgical area while performing the procedure.

Types of minimally invasive heart surgeries that may be performed using the innovative port-access or "keyhole" approach include : -

CABG surgery and reoperations for select patients
Valve surgery and reoperations for select patients
Epicardial lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy
Minimally invasive surgery for atrial fibrillation. The surgeon views the epicardial (outer) surface of the heart using an endoscope. Specialized instruments are used to create new pathways for the electrical impulses that trigger the heartbeat. Unlike traditional surgery for atrial fibrillation, there is no large chest wall incision, and the heart is not stopped during the procedure.
Some types of thoracic procedures may use video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS), also called thoracoscopy or pleuroscopy, such as partial lung resection, lung biopsy, lobectomy, drainage of pleural effusions, or pericardial and mediastinal biopsies.

Robotic-assisted heart surgery in India

Robotically-assisted heart surgery, also called closed-chest heart surgery, is a type of minimally invasive surgery performed by a cardiac surgeon. The surgeon uses a specially-designed computer console to control surgical instruments on thin robotic arms.

Robotically-assisted surgery has changed the way certain heart operations are being performed. This technology allows surgeons to perform certain types of complex heart surgeries with smaller incisions and precise motion control, offering patients improved outcomes.

Robotic surgery: Precise camera & instrument control allows the surgeon to control view & movements

First, three small incisions or "ports" are made in the spaces between the ribs. The surgical instruments (attached to the robotic arms) and one camera are placed through these ports. Motion sensors are attached to the robotic "wrist" so the surgeon can control the movement of the surgical instruments.

The surgeon sits at a computer console and looks through two lenses (one for each eye) that display images from the two tiny cameras placed inside the patient. From the two optical outputs, the computer generates a clear, three-dimensional image of the surgical site for the surgeon to view. Foot pedals provide precise camera control, so the surgeon can instantly zoom in and out to change the surgical view.

The surgeon's hands control the movement and placement of the endoscopic instruments. The robotic "arm and wrist" movements mimic those of the surgeon, yet are possibly more precise than the surgeon's natural hand and wrist movements. The surgeon is always in control during the surgery; there is no chance that the robotic arms will move on their own.

At We Care India partner hospitals, the robotically-assisted surgical technique can be used in select patients during these heart operations : -

Mitral valve repair and replacement surgery and reoperations
Tricuspid valve repair and replacement surgery and reoperations
Combined mitral and tricuspid valve surgery
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) repair
Removal of cardiac tumors
Lead placement on the surface of the left ventricle during a biventricular pacemaker or defibrillator implant
Catheter ablation for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (an intermittent irregular heart rhythm in the upper chambers of the heart)

Who is a candidate for minimally invasive heart surgery ?

Your cardiac surgeon will review the results of your diagnostic tests before your scheduled surgery to determine if you are a candidate for minimally invasive surgery. The surgical team will carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of minimally invasive heart surgery against traditional surgery.

How will I feel after minimally invasive heart surgery?

There will be some incision discomfort for the first few days after surgery. Medications can be taken to help relieve this discomfort. Ask your doctor which medication you should take for pain relief. If you begin to have discomfort in your chest that is similar to the symptoms you had before your surgery, call your doctor.

Recovery after minimally invasive heart surgery

Patients who had minimally invasive surgery may be able to go home 3 to 5 days after surgery. Your health care team will follow your progress and help you recover as quickly as possible.

Your health care team will provide specific instructions for your recovery and return to work, including guidelines for activity, driving, incision care and diet.

In general, you may be able to return to work (if you have a sedentary job), resume driving and participate in most non-strenuous activities within 2 to 4 weeks after minimally invasive heart surgery. You can resume heavy lifting and other more strenuous activities within 6 to 8 weeks after minimally invasive surger

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